Wood Packaging Materials


This project was initiated as follow-up work to previous research efforts started by the Appalachian Hardwood Center on the feasibility of using hot water and borate solutions to meet phytosanitation regulations. This previous research found that using hot water was an effective means of meeting IPPC standards for wood packaging treatment. Through this project, we developed a detailed cost analyses and plant layout approach for the development of a hot water and/or borate treatment system at an existing pallet manufacturing facility. It is our hope that anyone contemplating starting an operation to treat wood pallets for shipment overseas would find this document useful. 

Download the full report here

Our goal and aim is to provide the most current and useful information to the stakeholders of the WPM industry.

The original purpose of this website was to provide a comprehensive source of information on ISPM 15, Guidelines for Regulating Wood Packaging Material (WPM) in International Trade, which was adopted by the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) in 2002. The IPPC currently has over 200 member countries. An important purpose of the IPPC is to foster international cooperation in controlling pests of plants and plant products and in preventing their spread internationally.

Since 2009 the issue of regulating domestic wood packaging material (dWPM) has been evolving.  While direct regulation by APHIS has been taken off the table for the time being the risk assessment carried out by APHIS suggests a self policing best management practices (BMPs) approach to mitigate the spread of invasive species.  A project on BMP's for the dWPM industry is under way at Appalachian Hardwood Center.  In cooperation with dWPM manufacturers and other stakeholders a presentation outlining possible strategies for the industry will be developed.  Read more here

To the best of the authors knowledge, all information herein is accurate. The cooperating organizations hope you find this site a valuable resource in dealing with the phytosanitation issues surrounding WPM in international and domestic trade.

Questions/Comments--please call Jeff Slahor at 304 293 9423.


Concern over invasive species, especially at the moment the emerald ash borer (EAB), is driving a move to require phytosanitary treatments for all WPM domestic or international.  The initial assumption was to simply require heat treatment for all domestic WPM.  However concern, backed up by initial study, has raised doubts about the efficacy of the 56OC/30 minute ISPM 15 HT requirement in relation to the EAB.  A study published by the Entomological Society of America indicates that the current HT requirements result in substantial survival rates but that a temperature of 60OC may achieve the desired results. Here is a link for more information.


The standard for repaired pallets that have existing ISPM 15 HT or MB stamps is that if any new material is added during the repair of said WPM all exiting ISPM marks must be obliterated with the WPM then being retreated and remarked.

A Department of defense (DoD) manual (DoD 4140.01-M-1 titled “Compliance for Defense Packaging: Phytosanitary Requirements for Wood Packaging Material (WPM)” dated 09/07/2007 was recently brought to our attention. The entire document can be viewed by clicking on the following link DoD Compliance Manual . The following is a short synopsis of the document.

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